Grades 9-12 Glossary Sidebar

Grades 9-12 Research Glossary


Research Term Definition
Advanced Search Narrowing search results by using specific strategies. Examples: keyword, title, author, year, using Boolean Operators like AND, OR, NOT, using quotation marks, etc.
Aesthetic Growth Process in which individuals develop the ability to think about and respond to artistic/aesthetic stimuli (Housen 1983).
Analysis Examine and break information into parts by identifying motives or causes. Make inferences and find evidence to support generalizations.
Analyze To review information, make meaning, and determine the importance.
Authentic Assessment Assessment techniques that require students to originate a response to a task or question, using knowledge in real-world ways, with genuine purposes, audiences, and situational variables; may include demonstrations, exhibits, portfolios, oral presentations or essays (Donham 2008, Wiggins and McTighe 2005).
Bias Prejudice in favor of or against one thing, person, or group compared with another, usually in a way considered to be unfair.
Bibliography A list of the books referred to in a scholarly work, usually printed as an appendix
Boolean Search A type of search allowing users to combine keywords with operators such as AND, NOT and OR to further produce more relevant results. For example, a Boolean search could be "hotel" AND "New York".
Brainstorming a group problem-solving technique that involves the spontaneous contribution of ideas from all members of the group
Citing Sources Providing bibliographic information (author, date, resource title, etc.) for resources used to gather information. Citing sources is part of copyright and avoiding plagiarism.
Collaboration Working with another person or group in a respectful manner with the purpose to achieve a common goal.
Connections Building ideas between two ideas or topics. Identifying what the information has in common or what meanings can be made.
Copyright the exclusive legal right, given to an originator or an assignee to print, publish, perform, film, or record literary, artistic, or musical material, and to authorize others to do the same.
Cornell Notes A note-taking system that helps students to focus the content written down.
Critical Stance Attitude or disposition toward learning in which students are positioned to develop an understanding of a topic of issue through objectivity, inquiry, hypothesis, analysis and evaluation, comparing and contrasting, and consideration of implications.
Critical Thinking Analyzing current beliefs, new information, resource credibility, and making connections in order to improve thinking and understanding on a specific topic.
Database An usually large collection of data organized especially for rapid search and retrieval (as by a computer)
Digital curation tools Tools for selecting and maintaining digital information
Digital Literacy Ability to understand, evaluate, create, and integrate information in multiple digital formats via the computer and Internet (Gilster 1997).
Dispositions Ongoing beliefs and attitudes that guide thinking and intellectual behavior. Often referred to as habits of mind or tendencies to respond to situations in a certain way (Katz 1988)
domain a subdivision of the Internet consisting of computers or sites usually with a common purpose (as providing commercial information) and denoted in Internet addresses by a unique abbreviation (as com or gov)
Emotional Resilience Ability to “spring back emotionally after suffering through difficult and stressful times” (Mills and Dombeck 2005, 1). Emotional resilience requires setting realistic and attainable expectations and goals, good problem solving skills, persistence and determination, learning from past mistakes, and an optimistic attitude (Mills and Dombeck 2005).
Ethical Use Respectful use of resources including: respect the author’s intention, don’t change the main idea by eliminating information, don’t ignore information that negates your opinion on a topic, and don’t take things out of context.
Ethics Moral principles that govern a person's or group's behavior.
Evaluation Checking sources for accuracy, bias, relevance, credibility, etc.
Facts A statement or idea that can be proven by personal experience or verification. Facts are perceived to be true until new information disproves the idea or statement. Example: George Washington was the first United States president.
Fair Use There are four factors that identify fair use: the purpose of the use, the nature of the work, the amount used, and the impact on the future market. The factors allow students and educators to legally violate copyright laws for educational purposes. 
Flow Chart  a diagram that shows step-by-step progression through a procedure or system especially using connecting lines and a set of conventional symbols
Graphic Organizers Resources that help organize information in a way that makes notes or learning meaningful and useful.
Guideline A general rule, principle, or piece of advice.
Higher-level thinking/questioning Ability to think and question in a manner that requires consideration and application of complex concepts, problem solving skills, and reflection. Bloom’s Taxonomy identifies a hierarchy of six levels of thinking, with the top three (analysis, synthesis, and evaluation) classified as higher-order thinking skills (Bloom et al. 1956)
Inquiry The act of asking for, or seeking information
Inquiry Charts for Charting Inquiry charts provide a way to visualize, organize, and synthesize ideas in the inquiry process.
Inquiry Circles for Conversing Small groups organized for conversations about interesting ideas, meaningful questions, and emerging insights.
Inquiry Communities for Collaborating A collaborative environment where students learn with each other in a large group.
Inquiry Journals for Composing Inquiry journals provide a way for individuals to compose and reflect throughout the inquiry process.
Inquiry Logs for Choosing Inquiry logs provide a way of keeping track of the quality sources that are chose as important for addressing an inquiry question.
Inquiry Tools for Continuing All of the inquiry tools are for continuing and sustaining the inquiry process to completion.
Keywords Important words or short phrases about your topic that will assist in searching resources.
Learning Styles The amount an individual learns is directly related to the degree to which the educational experience is geared toward his learning style, rather than his intelligence. There are three main cognitive learning styles: visual, auditory, and kinesthetic.
Main Idea The key ideas that develop from researching a topic.
Making Inferences Reading between the lines and gathering information from context clues in order to form logical ideas or conclusions.
Media Literacy Ability to “access, analyze, evaluate and create messages in a variety of forms—from print to video to the Internet. Media literacy builds an understanding of the role of media in society as well as essential skills of inquiry and self-expression necessary for citizens of a democracy” (Center for Media Literacy n.d.)
Metacognition  Act of thinking about thinking. Metacognition challenges
students to consider and regulate their own learning. Metacognitive strategies include assessing or reviewing current and previous knowledge, identifying gaps in that knowledge, planning gap‑filling strategies, determining the relevance of new information, and possibly revising beliefs or understandings about the subject (NCREL 2002).
Multiple Intelligences Theory developed by Howard Gardner that proposes that intelligence is not a unitary or fixed trait, but a collection of different abilities with brain-based foundations. Gardner proposed nine intelligences: linguistic, musical, logical-mathematical, visual-spatial, bodily-kinesthetic, intrapersonal, interpersonal, naturalist, and existential (Gardner 1999).
Objectivity A lack of favoritism toward one side or another.
Opinions A statement of belief or judgment that cannot be proven true or false. Example: My favorite ice cream is chocolate.
Organizing Gathering information in a way in which meaning can be made. Examples: alphabetical, numerical, outlining, grouping, etc.
Paraphrasing Putting resource information into your own words.
Peer Evaluation Providing feedback to a classmate for the purpose of improving a skill or project.
Plagiarism Taking someone else’s work and portraying it as your own. Example: Copying and pasting a paragraph from a website without using quotation marks, getting permission, or citing the source.
Predictions Gathering information in order to make a logical guess about what is going to happen next. This is an ongoing process that changes based upon new information and old predictions.
Primary Research Any type of research that you go out and collect yourself. Examples include surveys, interviews, observations, and ethnographic research. A good researcher knows how to use both primary and secondary sources in her writing and to integrate them in a cohesive fashion
Primary Sources A primary source is a document or physical object which was written or created during the time under study. These sources were present during an experience or time period and offer an inside view of a particular event. Examples: letters, diaries, speeches, photographs, etc.
Prior Knowledge What you already know about a topic based upon prior experiences and learning.
Quotations Exact language from a resource requires quotation marks as well as a citation.
References A list of books or other sources with citations of authors.
Reflection Consideration of some subject matter, idea, or purpose.
Rubric An evaluation tool that illustrates how a scored is calculated based on specific criteria and skill level.
Scanning Quickly looking over resources with the purpose to find specific facts or information.
Scholarly Literature Sources which have been reviewed for accuracy, and for which the author can be determined.
Search Engine a program that searches for and identifies items in a database that correspond to keywords or characters specified by the user, used especially for finding particular sites on the World Wide Web
Secondary Sources A secondary source interprets and analyzes primary sources. These sources are one or more steps removed from the event. Secondary sources may have pictures, quotes or graphics of primary sources in them. Examples: essays, textbooks, commentaries, etc.
Self Reflection An opportunity to review the research process to identify new learning, strengths, and areas for future improvement.
Skimming Quickly looking over a resource with the purpose to gain an overview of a topic and main ideas.
Social Networking Ability to “connect, collaborate and form virtual communities via the computer and/or Internet. Social networking web sites are those that provide this opportunity to interact via interactive web applications. Sites that allow visitors to send emails, post comments, build web content and/or take part in live chats are all considered to be social networking sites. These kinds of sites have come to be collectively referred to as “Web 2.0 and are considered the next generation of the Internet because they allow users to interact and participate in a way that we couldn’t before (YALSA 2008)
Style Guide A style guide or style manual is a set of standards for the writing and design of documents. Example: APA, MLA, Chicago.
Summarizing Reading a large selection of text, understanding the concepts, and creating a shorter version of the information into your own words.
Supporting Details Facts and information used to back up the main idea, help illustrate a concept, or explain.
Synthesis A written discussion that draws on one or more sources. One’s ability to write syntheses depends on an ability to infer relationships among sources - essays, articles, fiction, and also nonprint sources.
Tertiary Sources Provides an overview or summary of a topic. This may contain primary and secondary sources. Examples: almanacs, encyclopedias, bibliographies, etc.
Timetable A schedule, to take place at a particular time.
URL The letters and symbols that are the address of a website on the internet.
Visual Literacy Ability to “understand and use images, including the ability to think, learn, and express oneself in terms of images.” (Braden and Hortin 1982, 41).
Web 2.0 Trend in Web design and development that has transformed the way individuals use the Internet, fostering creativity, interaction, interaction, and collaboration through Web applications such as blogs, wikis, RSS, feeds, and social networks.
Works Cited A list of sources that you have incorporated within your paper by using the ideas, information, and quotes of others. It is not a list of all the works that you found that addressed your topic.
Writing Process Refers to a set of steps an individual takes while writing. They include: prewriting, writing, revising, editing, and publishing.
BCPS K-12 Research Guides Grades 9-12 HOME