Learning Styles

Modality

Descriptors

Learn Best Through the Use of ...

Visual Learners (input)

  • Learn by observation
  • Can recall what they have seen
  • Can follow written or drawn instructions
  • Like to read
  • Use written notes
  • Benefit by visualizing, watching TV/video/films
  • Charts, graphs, diagrams, and flow charts
  • Sight words
  • Flashcards
  • Visual similarities and differences
  • Pictures and graphics
  • Maps
  • Silent reading
  • Written instructions
  • Computer assisted learning

Auditory Learners (input)
Verbal-Linguistic Intelligence

  • Prefer listening and taking notes
  • Listen for patterns
  • Consult peers to ascertain that they have the correct details
  • Can recall what they have heard
  • Can follow oral directions
  • Repeat words aloud for memorizartion
  • Use oral language effectively
  • Discussion, dialog, debate
  • Memorization
  • Phonics
  • Oral reading
  • Hearing anecdotes or stories
  • Listening to tapes or CDs
  • Cooperartive learning groups
Kinesthetic Learners (input)
  • Are often physically adept
  • Learn through experience and physical activity
  • Benefit from demonstration
  • Learn from teaching others what they know
  • Playing games
  • Role playing
  • Read body language/gestures
  • Mime
  • Drama
  • Learn or memorize while moving (pacing, stationary bike, finger or whole body games)
Tactile Learners (input)
  • Learn by touching and manipulating objects
  • Often learn inductively rather than deductively
  • Tend toward pscychomotor over abstract thinking
  • Prefer personal connections to topics
  • Follow directions they have written themselves / that they have rehearsed
  • Benefit from demonstrations
  • Learning by doing
  • "Hands-on"
  • Creating maps
  • Building models
  • Art projects
  • Using manipulatives
  • Drawing, designing things
  • Writing / tracing
Active
  • Can be impulsive
  • Risk-takers
  • Do not prefer lectures
  • Prefer group work
  • Tend to be interpersonal
  • Not inclined to too much note-taking
  • Prefer "doing, discussin, explaining" vs listening and watching
  • Prefer active experimentation
  • Like acting and role playing
  • Like team competition
Reflective
  • Prefer to think about concepts quietly before any action
  • Learn by thinking
  • Like writing
  • Tend to be intrapersonal and introspective
  • Tend toward deductive learning
  • Prefer reflective observation
  • Intrapersonal skills valued
  • Journals
  • Learning logs
Global Understanding
  • Make decisions based on intuition
  • Spontaneous and creative; "idea" person
  • Often a risk-taker
  • Tend to reach conclusions quickly
  • Intake information in large chunks rather than details
  • Nonlinear thinkers
  • "See the forest before they see the trees."
  • Interpersonal connection important to them
  • Stories and anecdotes
  • Seeing the "whole" rather than in parts
  • Highly interesting project and materials
  • Functional games and activities
  • Think-pair-share; Praise-question-polish
  • Teacher feedback; person-to-person communication
Analytical Understanding
  • Sequential, linear learners
  • Prefer information in small chumks, steps
  • Can follow the rules for mathematic equations
  • Prefer a logical progression
  • "See the trees before they see the forest."
  • Intrapersonal skills valued
  • Journals
  • Learning logs
  • Sequentially organized material, timelines, diagrams
  • Moving from "part" to the "whole"
  • Puzzles, logic games

Learning Preferences
Field Dependent Definition: [field sensitive] - tends toward concrete: more teacher and group interaction

Field Independent Definition: tends toward abstract

Field Dependent Learner

  • Experiences in a global fashion, adheres to structures
  • Learns material with social content best
  • Attends best to material relevant to own experience
  • Requires externally defined goals and reinforcements
  • Needs organization provided
  • More affected by criticism
  • Uses observational approach for concept attainment [learns best by using examples]

Field Dependent Teaching Styles

  • Prefers teaching situations that allow interaction and discussion with students
  • Uses questions to check on student learning following instruction
  • Uses student-centered activities
  • Viewed by students as teaching facts
  • Provides less feedback, positive feedback
  • Strong in establishing a warm and personal learning environment

Field Independent Learners

  • Perceives analytically
  • Makes specific concept distinctions; little overlap
  • Impersonal orientation
  • May need explicit training in social skills
  • Interested in new concepts for their own sake
  • Has self-defined goals and reinforcement
  • Can self-structure situations
  • Less affected by criticism
  • Uses hypothesis-testing approach to attain concepts

Field Independent Teaching Styles

  • Prefers engaging students by establishing routines in order to work through ideas
  • Uses questions to introduce topics and probe student answers
  • Uses teacher-organized learning situations
  • Viewed by students as encouraging to apply principles
  • Gives corrective feedback using error analysis
  • Strong in organizing and guiding student learning