Teacher Resources Teacher Resources Epidemic Experts

Student Resources Student Resources
open
  • Invitation to inquiry
  • Open minds
  • Stimulate curiosity

Click ot tap the Open icon
for help with this inquiry step.

An American Plague

Fever 1793

In Language Arts class, you have been reading An American Plague by Jim Murphy and excerpts of the historical fiction novel Fever by Laurie Halsie Anderson. The Yellow Fever took Philadelphia by storm in 1793, the city was panic-stricken and members of the community reacted in a variety of surprising ways. Some, like Dr. Benjamin Rush, were deemed heroes. On the other hand, some were recorded in the history books as cowards for fleeing to safety and leaving their beloved city behind.  

Throughout history, disease outbreaks, epidemics, and pandemics have had a widespread impact on people around the world. Unfortunately, these public health issues continue to affect people today. For example, you or someone you know may have been stricken by the "flu," which is caused by a variety of influenza viruses. Modern societies have responded to flu outbreaks in a variety of ways. For example, medical advances like vaccines ("flu shot") now protect many people from contracting the disease; many communities now provide hand sanitizer dispensers in public places to try to prevent the spread of the flu and other diseases; people in some places wear surgical masks to protect them from disease.

Despite the nationwide vaccination campaign to immunize most Americans against the flu, this disease can still reach epidemic proportions in some areas of the country, as reported in this 2015 news video:

NBC Learn video

Modern societies have gained some insight into dealilng with epidemics. Public health experts learn by studying various epidemics that have occurred around the world, and analyzing the ways different members of the community responded to them. During this inquiry-based PBA (Performance Based Assessment), you and your classmates will have an opportunity to become Epidemic Experts!

Click or tap on the Immerse tab above to continue your inquiry.

Immerse

  • Build background knowledge
  • Connect to content
  • Discover interesting ideas

Click ot tap the Immerse icon
for help with this inquiry step.

 


For this inquiry-based PBA, you will work in an Inquiry Circle (small group) to become experts on an epidemic in history. You will conduct thorough research in order to learn facts about this epidemic, its impact on society, and the manner in which members of the community handled the episode. Your research will enable you to compare and contrast this historical epidemic to the Yellow Fever of 1793 and assume the role of a community member affected by the epidemic in order to answer the essential question:

How do the time period, location, and people's roles
in a society impact their response to an epidemic?

First, use one ore more ot the resources below to build background knowledge, connect to the content, and discover interesting ideas.

Backgrounders:

  • Epidemic (Encyclopedia article from World Book Student)
  • What are Epidemics, Pandemics, and Disease Outbreaks? (WebMD)
  • "Epidemic." Natural Disasters. Claire Watts. New York: Dorling Kindersley, 2006. [60]-61. DK Eyewitness Books. Gale Virtual Reference Library. Web. 20 Oct. 2013.
    * Includes images, read-aloud, MP3 download, PDF download to eReader, translation.
  • "What Is an Epidemic?" Epidemic, 1st American ed. Brian Ward. New York: Dorling Kindersley, 2000. 6-7. DK Eyewitness Books. Gale Virtual Reference Library. Web. 20 Oct. 2013.
  • Major U.S. Epidemics

You may use a variety of Inquiry Tools and Strategies throughout the inquiry process.

  • Begin your Inquiry Journal by responding to these Inquiry Journal Prompts.
  • Click or tap on the Evaluate tab above to preview the assessments you and your teacher may use for your inquiry process and products
    • You may use these throughout your inquiry process to plan, make decisions, monitor progress, and reflect on your learning.

Click or tap on the Explore tab above to continue your inquiry.

 

Explore

  • Explore interesting ideas
  • Look around
  • Dip in

Click ot tap the Explore icon
for help with this inquiry step.



Apply exploratory strategies like browsing, scanning, and skimming as you use the resources listed below to help you select an epidemic to research. "Dip in," look around, and discover a topic of interest. Try using these inquiry tools and strategies to guide your exploration.

Inquiry Tools for the Explore step:

  • Use the Stop and Jot strategy to record ideas and questions in your Inquiry Journal.
  • Use the Pair-Share Protocol to clarify your ideas, get feedback, and gain insight.
  • Use the Inquiry Log to keep track of sources that might be useful for further inquiry.

Possible epidemics for research:

Your teacher will approve your topic selection and you will form an Inquiry Circle with students who have selected the same epidemic to research.

Click or tap on the Identify tab above to continue your inquiry.

Identify

  • Pause and ponder
  • Decide direction
  • Identify inquiry questions

Click ot tap the Identify icon
for help with this inquiry step.

Essential Question:

How do the time period, location, and people's roles
in a society impact their response to an epidemic?
  • Refer to the organizer Epidemics in History: Gathering the Facts for specific subtopics to guide your search for information on your assigned epidemic, in preparation for comparing/contrasting this epidemic to the Yellow Fever of 1793.
  • Refer to the organizer Preparing a Testimonial for Panel to help you gather information that will enable you to assume the role of a community member affected by the epidemic.
  • Identify and highlight or underline keywords for skimming, scanning and searching.

 

Click or tap on the Gather tab above to continue your inquiry.

gather

  • Gather important information
  • Go broad (search & locate)
  • Go deep (read & reflect)

Click ot tap the Gather icon
for help with this inquiry step.

Try using these Inquiry Tools for the Gather step:

Apply effective searching and reading strategies in order to locate and evaluate information relevant to your information need.

Refer to the organizer Epidemics in History: Gathering the Facts for specific subtopics to guide your search for information about your assigned epidemic, in preparation for comparing/contrasting this epidemic to the Yellow Fever of 1793.

Refer to the organizer Preparing a Testimonial for Panel to help you gather information that will enable you to assume the role of a community member affected by the epidemic.

See How to Evaluate Information from the Internet to ensure you are gathering information from reliable, authoritative sources.

Use strategies and tools for note-taking, documentation, and reflection to gather and organize information:

Use Note-taking 21st Century Style or Note-taking Using Index Cards.
Demonstrate digital citizenship and avoid plagiarism by citing your sources.

    Use your EasyBib School Edition student account to format citations and create a Works Cited list. Refer to EasyBib Citation Guides or the Purdue OWL MLA Style & Formatting Guide as needed.

    Note that most BCPS-licensed database content includes a pre-formatted citation which you can copy and paste onto your Works Cited list.

Now, use a variety of resources as directed on the Student Resources page.

Before you go on to the Create step, make sure you have gathered enough relevant information to prepare you for:

  • Comparing/contrasting your assigned epidemic to the Yellow Fever of 1793 in an Essay.
  • Assuming the role of a community member affected by the epidemic in a Panel Discussion.
Click or tap on the Create tab above to continue your inquiry.

Create

  • Reflect on learning
  • Go beyond facts to make meaning
  • Create to communicate

Click ot tap the Create icon
for help with this inquiry step.

Analyze your research notes to reflect on your learning. Do you have enough information to to meet the requirements of your research task? What new insights have emerged in response to the Essential Question?

Synthesize your findings by creating a product/performance to communicate new meaning and understanding. To do this, you will write a compare/contrast essay and participate in a panel discussion, as outlined below:

1. Comparison/Contrast Essay:

First, you will compare and contrast your findings about an historical epidemic to what you have learned about the Yellow Fever of 1793.  In an essay, you will draw conclusions based on similarities and differences between your assigned epidemic and the Yellow Fever. Finally, you will evaluate how the setting (time period and location) impacted the course of action taken in response to the disease. 

- Use these resources for organizing, drafting and evaluating your compare/contrast essay:

- Read and review the Compare/Contrast Essay Models below.

With a partner, use the criteria from Model Essay Writing Part 1: Outlining Your Essay to evaluate the models: 

- Choose an organizational structure for your essay and begin drafting your Compare/ Contrast Essay for your assigned epidemic

- Use Checklist for a Compare/Contrast Essay to exchange drafts with a partner and complete a peer review. Complete the Evaluations from a Peer Review section to reflect on the process and any changes that you will make in your draft.

- Using the suggestions from the peer review, revise your draft.

2. Panel Discussion:

In addition to the essay, you will participate in a panel discussion. Your panel will consist of students who researched the same epidemic. Each student on your panel will assume the role of a member of the community affected by your assigned epidemic

Each group member will prepare an anecdote in which you describe the impact the epidemic has had on your life. Each member of the panel will also propose the “best” solution for handling the epidemic. 

The audience will have the opportunity to ask the panel questions in order to gain understanding of your epidemic. Panel members should be prepared to answer questions, as a result of thorough research.

Use these resources to prepare for assuming the role of a community member affected by your assigned epidemic in a panel discussion:

- If necessary, use resources and search tools on the Student Resources page to further research your epidemic based on your assigned role using Preparing a Testimonial for Panel. 

- In your Inquiry Circle (with other students who researched the same epidemic), practice your discussion panel using the Planning the Panel Discussion worksheet.

Click or tap on the Share tab above to continue your inquiry.

share

  • Learn from each other
  • Share your learning
  • Tell your story
Click ot tap the Share icon
for help with this inquiry step.

Presenting your Panel Discussion:
  • Share your research findings and insights with your inquiry community by performing your Panel Discussion for the class.  During your presentation focus on the criteria on Planning the Panel Discussion

Audience:

  • Your job as a member of the audience is to listen very closely to the presentations of each panel. You will use the Audience Chart to record the disease, create questions for the panel, and then decide the best solution (as presented by a member of the panel) to help their community survive.
  • Audience members will have an opportunity to ask the panel questions in order to gain understanding of the epidemic. Use How Do I Question to help you create good questions for the panel.
  • After hearing from all members of the panel, the audience will vote for the best solution for the survival of the community.

Click or tap on the Evaluate tab above to continue your inquiry.

 

evaluate

  • Evaluate the achievement of learning goals
  • Reflect on content
  • Reflect on process

Click ot tap the Evaluate icon
for help with this inquiry step.

Evaluate:

The following tools may be used or adapted by you and your teacher to evaluate your research process, product and presentation. You can use these scoring tools throughout your inquiry process to plan, make decisions, monitor progress, and reflect on your learning.

Research Process Assessments/Reflection:

Research Product & Presentation PBA Assessments:

Extend your learning:

This BCPS Online Research Model is based on Guided Inquiry Design; GID resources have been used with permission of the authors: Kuhlthau, C.C., Maniotes, L.K.,  & Caspari, A.K. (2012).  Guided inquiry design: A framework for inquiry in your school. Santa Barbara, CA:  Libraries Unlimited.

Background Image: Mexicans wearing face masks to protect against Swine Flu, ABC News

 


jQuery

Open Immerse Explore Identify Gather Create Share Evaluate NBC Learn video